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Scotland Arbitration Code

 

 

 Contents

Article

1

COMMENCEMENT OF ARBITRATION

 

2

NOTICES AND COMMUNICATIONS

 

3

CONSTITUTION OF THE ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL, NUMBER OF ARBITRATORS AND PROCEDURE FOR APPOINTMENT

 

4

QUALIFICATIONS OF ARBITRATORS

 

5

CHALLENGE OF ARBITRATORS

 

6

REPLACEMENT OF ARBITRATORS

 

7

TRUNCATED TRIBUNAL

 

8

FEES AND EXPENSES

 

9

COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN PARTIES AND ARBITRATORS

 

10

EXCLUSION OF LIABILITY

 

11

PRELIMINARY ISSUES

 

12

SEAT OF ARBITRATION

 

13

LANGUAGE OF ARBITRATION

 

14

SUBSTANTIVE LAW APPLICABLE

 

15

CONDUCT OF PROCEEDINGS GENERALLY

 

16

ADDITIONAL POWERS OF ARBITRATORS

 

17

EVIDENCE, HEARINGS AND PLEADINGS

 

18

EVIDENCE OF WITNESSES

 

19

EXPERTS

 

20

INTERIM MEASURES

 

21

CLOSURE OF PROCEEDINGS

 

22

THE AWARD

 

23

CORRECTION OF AWARDS AND ADDITIONAL AWARDS

 

24

EXPENSES

 

25

SETTLEMENT

Commencement of Arbitration article 1

1:1 The party commencing arbitration (the Claimant) shall give to the other party (the Respondent) a Notice of Arbitration.

1:2 Arbitral proceedings shall be deemed to commence on the date on which the Notice of Arbitration is received by the Respondent.

1:3 The Notice of Arbitration shall include the following:

(a) The full names and addresses of the parties (including telephone, facsimile, telex numbers and e-mail addresses if known).

(b) A reference to the arbitration clause or the separate arbitration agreement that is involved.

(c) A short statement of the Claimant�s claim, including the nature of the claim, the sum or sums claimed, and the Respondent�s defense if known to the Claimant.

(d) The relief or remedy sought.

(e) A demand that the matter be referred to arbitration.

(f) If the arbitration agreement calls for each party to appoint an Arbitrator, the name and address (and telephone, facsimile, telex number and e-mail address if known) of the Arbitrator nominated by the Claimant.

(g) If the arbitration agreement does not call for each party to appoint an Arbitrator, a proposal by the Claimant of the name of an Arbitrator with his full name and address (and his telephone, facsimile, telex number and e-mail address if known).

(h) Within thirty days after receipt of the Notice of Arbitration the Respondent shall deliver to the Claimant a Notice of Defense. Failure to deliver a Notice of Defense shall not delay the arbitration. If there is such a failure all claims set forth in the Notice of Arbitration shall be deemed to be denied.

1:4 The Notice of Defense shall include:-

(a) Any comment on article 1.3(a) (b) or (e) that the Respondent considers appropriate.

(b) A short statement of the Respondent�s defense.

(c) If the arbitration agreement calls for each party to appoint an Arbitrator the name and address (and telephone, facsimile, telex and e-mail address if known) of the Arbitrator nominated by the Respondent.

(d) If the arbitration agreement does not call for each party to appoint an Arbitrator, then the Respondent shall intimate whether he accepts the Arbitrator nominated by the Claimant and, if he does not accept him, the names and addresses of the candidates whom the Respondent proposes.

[Note: Clause number 1.5 is not used]

1:6 The Respondent may include in the Notice of Defense any counterclaim within the scope of the arbitration clause. If so, the counterclaim in the Notice of Defense shall include those matters in Article 1.3. (b)(c)(d) and (e).

1:7 If a counterclaim is asserted in the Notice of Defense, within 30 days after its receipt, the Claimant shall deliver to the Respondent a reply to the counterclaim which shall include the same matters as provided for in the Notice of Defense in Article 1.5.

1:8 Failure by the Respondent to include a counterclaim in the Notice of Defense shall not preclude the Respondent from making a counterclaim at a later stage of the proceedings, if the arbitral tribunal in its absolute discretion is prepared to permit it. Any such counterclaim shall include those matters in Article 1.3. (b)(c)(d) and (e).

1:9 If any party has been served with a Notice of Arbitration he may, at any time before the arbitral tribunal has been appointed, give Notice of Arbitration in respect of any other disputes which fall under the same arbitration agreement. All disputes identified in such Notice of Arbitration shall be consolidated within the same arbitral proceedings.

1:10 After an arbitral tribunal has been appointed, either party may give a further Notice of Arbitration to the other, and to the arbitral tribunal, referring any additional dispute which falls under the same arbitration agreement to the arbitral tribunal proceedings and, whether or not the other party consents to that other dispute being referred to the proceedings, the arbitral tribunal may in its absolute discretion order that the additional dispute should be referred to and consolidated within those same proceedings or that it should not be so referred and consolidated.

1:11 Where the same arbitral tribunal is appointed in two or more arbitral proceedings relating to the same project, each of which involves some common issue whether or not involving the same parties, the arbitral tribunal may if it considers it appropriate order the concurrent hearing of any such proceedings, or of any claim or issue arising in such proceedings upon such term or terms as it considers appropriate in all the circumstances.

Notices and Communications article 2

2:1 All notices or other communications between the parties and the arbitral tribunal shall be in writing and may be delivered by courier or by registered/recorded post, or transmitted by facsimile, telex, e-mail or any other means of telecommunication which provides a record of its transmission.

2:2 A party�s last known residence or place of business during the arbitration shall be a valid address for the purposes of any notices or other communications in the absence of any notification of a change of address by that party to the other party and to the arbitral tribunal.

2:3 For the purpose of determining the date of the commencement of a time limit, a notice or other communication shall be treated as having been received on the day it is delivered, or in the case of a telecommunication, transmitted in accordance with Article 2.1.

2:4 For the purpose of determining compliance with a time limit, a notice or other communication shall be treated as having been sent made or transmitted if it is dispatched in accordance with Article 2.1 and 2.2 prior to or on the date of expiration of the time limit.

2:5 All correspondence with, and other documents sent to the arbitral tribunal by one party shall at the same time be communicated to the other party.

Constitution of the Arbitral Tribunal, Number of Arbitrators and Procedure for Appointment article 3

3:1 The expression "the Arbitral Tribunal" in this Code includes a sole Arbitrator or all Arbitrators where more than one. All references to an Arbitrator shall include the masculine and the feminine, and Arbitrator shall include Arbiter.

3:2 The parties are free to agree on the number of Arbitrators. If they have not agreed, a single Arbitrator shall be appointed.

3:3 If the parties have agreed that there shall be more than one Arbitrator and the Claimant has nominated an Arbitrator in accordance with Article 1.3(f) but the Respondent fails within thirty days of receipt of the Notice of Arbitration either to deliver a Notice of Defense at all, or to include in the Notice of Defense the name and address of another Arbitrator, the parties shall be deemed to have agreed on a single Arbitrator and the Arbitrator nominated by the Claimant shall be appointed as the sole Arbitrator.

3:4 If the parties have agreed that there shall be a single Arbitrator and the Claimant has proposed an Arbitrator under Article 1.3(g), and the Respondent does not intimate non-acceptance of that Arbitrator within thirty days of the Notice of Arbitration, then the Arbitrator proposed by the Claimant shall be appointed as the sole Arbitrator.

3:5 Where the parties have agreed a single Arbitrator be appointed and each has nominated an Arbitrator, they shall endeavour to agree on the single Arbitrator within thirty days of delivery of the Notice of Defense. If they cannot agree within that period either party may apply, in the case of a domestic dispute to the Chairman of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (Scottish Branch), and in the case of an international dispute to the Chairman of the Scottish Council for International Arbitration, to appoint the Arbitrator.

3:6 Where parties have agreed on an arbitral tribunal of three and each has appointed an Arbitrator then unless the parties have agreed on another method of appointment the party-appointed Arbitrators shall endeavour within thirty days of the delivery of the Notice of Defense to agree upon a third Arbitrator who shall be the chairman of the arbitral tribunal, or if the parties have so agreed shall act as oversman. If the party-appointed Arbitrators do not reach agreement within that time either party may apply in the case of a domestic dispute to the Chairman of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (Scottish Branch) and in the case of an international dispute to the Chairman of the Scottish Council for International Arbitration, to appoint that third Arbitrator or oversman.

3:7 Where application has been made to the Chairman of the appropriate body to appoint an Arbitrator and that Chairman refuses or fails to make an appointment within thirty days of the application, either party may apply to the Court of Session, Scotland to appoint the Arbitrator.

3:8 Where the Chairman of the appropriate body is unavailable or unable to act, a Vice-Chairman may act in his place.

3:9 For the purposes of this Article the parties prorogate the exclusive jurisdiction of the Court of Session, Scotland.

Qualifications of Arbitrators article 4

4:1 Any natural person of whatever nationality who is of full age and capacity may be an Arbitrator.

4:2 Each Arbitrator shall be and remain at all times independent and impartial.

4:3 Before nominating or proposing an Arbitrator the party seeking to nominate or propose that Arbitrator shall ascertain that that person is willing and able to accept appointment.

4:4 On being approached to act as Arbitrator, the prospective Arbitrator shall disclose in writing to the parties any circumstances likely to give rise to justifiable doubts as to the Arbitrator�s impartiality or independence or confirm in writing that no such circumstances exist. If at any stage in the arbitration circumstances arise that may give rise to such doubts, the Arbitrator shall promptly disclose those circumstances to the parties. Such circumstances include but are not limited to bias, interest in the result of the arbitration and past or present relationships with a party.

4:5 By accepting appointment the Arbitrator shall be deemed to have undertaken to make available sufficient time to enable the arbitration to be conducted and completed expeditiously.

4:6 Where parties are of different nationality a sole Arbitrator (or chairman or oversman) shall not have the same nationality as any of the parties unless they agree otherwise in writing. The nationality of a party shall be understood to include that of controlling shareholders or interests. Citizens of the European Union shall be treated for this purpose as nationals of the different Member States and shall not be treated as having the same nationality.

4:7 Article 4.6 shall not apply in the case of an Arbitrator appointed as sole Arbitrator under Article 3.3.

4:8 By accepting appointment the Arbitrator shall be deemed to be bound by this Code.

Challenge of Arbitrators article 5

5:1 A party may challenge an Arbitrator if circumstances exist or arise giving rise to justifiable doubts as to the Arbitrator�s impartiality or independence.

5:2 Such challenge may only be made within fifteen days after the party challenging became aware of the circumstances it considers give rise to justifiable doubt as to an Arbitrator�s impartiality or independence.

5:3 The challenge shall be in writing and shall be delivered to the other party and to the arbitral tribunal.

5:4 The other party may agree to the challenge (in which case the Arbitrator shall withdraw from the arbitration) or the challenged Arbitrator may decide to withdraw. In neither case does the withdrawal imply acceptance by the Arbitrator of the validity of the grounds stated for the challenge.

5:5 If the challenged Arbitrator does not withdraw, the arbitral tribunal shall in the first instance decide upon the challenge. In the event that it rejects the challenge the party making the challenge shall have the right to apply to a tribunal of three persons to be selected by the Chairman of the Scottish Council for International Arbitration and the Chairman of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (Scottish Branch) acting jointly to decide the challenge, and the decision of that tribunal shall be final.

5:6 If the challenge is upheld by either the arbitral tribunal or the tribunal referred to in Article 5.5 the challenged Arbitrator shall be deemed to have resigned upon the date of the decision upholding the challenge.

5:7 Pending the decision of such a tribunal the arbitral tribunal may in its discretion continue with the arbitration.

Replacement of Arbitrators article 6

6:1 An Arbitrator shall not be entitled to resign or withdraw (except under Article 5) without the consent in writing of the parties, except upon the provision of a certificate from a registered doctor justifying resignation upon grounds of health.

6:2 When an Arbitrator has died, withdrawn, resigned or been removed from office the position left vacant shall be filled, unless the parties otherwise agree, by appointment by the Chairman of the body designated in Article 3.5.

6:3 When a replacement Arbitrator is appointed in the course of an arbitration, it shall be for the arbitral tribunal to determine in its discretion whether any hearings held previously shall be repeated.

6:4 If in the view of a party an Arbitrator becomes incapacitated or unable to perform the duties of his office the procedure in respect of Challenge of Arbitrators set out in Article 5 shall apply.

6:5 Pending replacement of an Arbitrator, the arbitral proceedings shall be suspended unless otherwise agreed by the parties.

Truncated Tribunal article 7

7:1 If an Arbitrator in a three person tribunal, although duly notified fails without good cause to participate in the work of the tribunal, the two other Arbitrators shall have the power in their sole discretion to continue the arbitration and to make any award, order or other decision despite the failure of the third Arbitrator to participate. In making this decision the two other Arbitrators shall have regard to all matters they consider appropriate in the circumstances of the case. The two Arbitrators shall notify the parties and the third Arbitrator that the arbitral tribunal has become a tribunal of two and that the arbitration shall continue to its conclusion.

7:2 If the two other Arbitrators determine that the arbitration should not proceed without the participation of a third Arbitrator, they shall declare in writing that the office of the third Arbitrator has been vacated, and the procedure for replacing that Arbitrator shall be carried through as if he had resigned in accordance with Article 6.2.

7:3 Upon the appointment of a replacement Arbitrator in the circumstances of Article 7.2 the provision of Article 6.3 shall apply in relation to the repetition of previous proceedings.

Fees and Expenses article 8

8.1 Each Arbitrator shall be compensated on a reasonable basis determined at the time of appointment for serving as an Arbitrator, and shall be reimbursed for his time, travelling and other expenses incurred in the course of the arbitration.

8.2 Provided there is agreement in writing in advance by the parties the Arbitrator�s fees may include a charge for time reserved but not used as a result of late postponement or cancellation.

8.3 In the event of failure to agree at the time of appointment on an arbitrator�s fees, they shall be fixed upon the application of a party or the Arbitrator by the Auditor of the Court of Session, Scotland.

8.4 Where the arbitral tribunal has appointed a clerk, the fees and expenses of the clerk, if not agreed, shall be fixed by the Auditor of the Court of Session upon the application of a party or the arbitral tribunal.

Communications between Parties article 9

9.1 Except as otherwise provided in these Articles or permitted by the arbitral tribunal no party or anyone acting on its behalf shall have any ex parte communications with any Arbitrator with regard to any matter of substance relating to the proceedings.

Exclusion of Liability article 10

10.1 No Arbitrator, clerk or nominating body shall be liable to any party for any act or omission in connection with any arbitration conducted under these Articles, except that he may be liable for the consequences of conscious and deliberate wrongdoing.

Preliminary Issues article 11

11.1 The Tribunal shall have the power to hear and determine challenges to its own jurisdiction, including any objections with regard to the existence or validity of the arbitration clause or of the separate arbitration agreement.

11.2 The Tribunal shall have the power to determine the existence, validity and scope of the contract of which an arbitration clause forms part. For the purposes of this Article an arbitration clause which forms part of a contract shall be treated as an agreement independent of the other terms of the contract. A decision by the tribunal that the arbitration clause is null and void shall not for that reason alone render the arbitration clause invalid.

11.3 Any challenge to the jurisdiction of the tribunal or as to the arbitrability of a claim or counterclaim must be made to the tribunal not later than the date of issue of the Notice of Defense or reply to the counterclaim as the case may be, provided that if a claim or counterclaim is later amended such a challenge may be made in relation to the amended matter not later than the date of reply to such amended claims or counterclaim. If no such challenge is made then the right to make it shall be treated as having been irrevocably waived.

Seat of Arbitration article 12

12:1 Unless the parties have agreed upon the seat of the arbitration the tribunal shall fix the seat of arbitration. Any award by the tribunal shall be deemed made at such place. Notwithstanding the above the tribunal may hold hearings whenever it deems appropriate. In addition it may hold meetings with or without the parties being present wherever it deems appropriate.

Language of Arbitration article 13

13:1 In the absence of an agreement by the parties the arbitral tribunal shall determine the language or languages of the arbitration, due regard being given to all relevant circumstances including the language of the contract.

13:2 If any document is expressed in a language other than the language(s) of the arbitration and no translation is provided by the party seeking to rely upon the document the tribunal may order that party to submit a translation in the language of the arbitration.

Substantive Law Applicable article 14

14.1 The tribunal shall apply the substantive law agreed by the parties as applicable to the dispute. Failing such agreement, the tribunal shall apply such law or laws as it determines to be appropriate.

14.2 In all cases the tribunal shall take account of the provisions of the contract and usage of the trade applicable to the contract.

14.3 The tribunal shall not decide as amiable compositeur nor ex bono et aequo unless the parties have expressly authorized it to do so.

Conduct of Proceedings Generally article 15

15.1 Subject to this Code, the tribunal may conduct the arbitration in whatever manner it considers appropriate, provided that the parties are treated with equality and that each party is given a fair opportunity to present its case.

15.2 Unless the parties have agreed otherwise the tribunal shall determine to what extent, if any, written pleadings are to be provided by the parties in addition to those contained in the Notice of Arbitration and Notice of Defense, and shall set out the timetable according to which such pleadings shall be prepared and lodged with the tribunal.

15.3 The tribunal in the exercise of the widest discretion shall conduct the proceedings with a view to the fair, speedy, and efficient resolution of the dispute. It may conduct preliminary conference(s) with the parties for the purpose of organizing, scheduling and agreeing procedures to expedite the subsequent proceedings.

15.4 The tribunal may in its discretion direct the order of proof, split proceedings, exclude cumulative or irrelevant witness testimony or other evidence and direct parties to focus their presentation on issues the decision of which may dispose of all or part of the case.

15.5 In the case of a three member tribunal the chairman may after consulting the other members make procedural rulings which need only be signed by the chairman.

Additional Powers of Arbitrators article 16

16.1 In addition to the powers conferred generally or specifically on Arbitrators elsewhere in this Code, the Arbitrator shall have the following powers (unless the parties otherwise agree):-

16.2 power to make interim or partial awards;

16.3 power to award damages;

16.4 power to rectify the terms of any contract to the extent permitted by the law applicable to that contract;

16.5 power to order that simple or compound interest shall be paid by any party on any sum awarded at such rate or rates as the Arbitrator determines to be appropriate without being bound by legal rates of interest imposed by any state, court or any agreement between the parties in respect of any period which the Arbitrator determines to be appropriate including a date prior to the appointment of the Arbitrator and ending not later than the date upon which the award is complied with;

16.6 power to vary time limits whether imposed by the Arbitrator or this Code or the parties whenever it seems appropriate to so do;

16.7 power in the event that a party is unduly dilatory in presenting its claim, counterclaim or defense to the prejudice of the other party to dismiss the claim or counterclaim or exclude the defenses as the case may be;

16.8 power to appoint a clerk, whose fees, outlays and expenses shall be included in the expenses of the arbitration

Evidence, Hearings and Pleadings article 17

17.1 The tribunal shall determine the manner in which the parties shall present their cases. Unless otherwise agreed by the parties or determined by the tribunal under Article 15, the presentation of a party�s case shall include the submission of a pre-hearing memorandum including the following matters:

(a) A statement of facts.

(b) A statement of each claim being asserted.

(c) A statement of the applicable law on which the party relies.

(d) A statement of the relief requested, including the basis for any damages claimed and;

(e) An outline of the evidence to be presented including the name, capacity and subject of testimony of any witness proposed to be called, the language in which the witness will testify and an estimate of the amount of time required for that witness�s direct testimony if it were to be given orally.

17.2 In order to define the issues to be heard and determined the tribunal may make pre-hearing orders in relation to the arbitration and instruct parties within such time limits as it thinks fit to file more detailed statements of claim and defense and pre-hearing memoranda.

17.3 The tribunal may impose such time limits as it considers reasonable for each stage of the proceedings including the time allocated to each party for presentation of its case or for rebuttal.

17.4 At any time during the arbitration the tribunal may at the request of a party or of its own motion order a party to deliver to the tribunal and to the other party such documents or other evidence as it considers necessary or appropriate and may order a party to make available to the tribunal (or to an expert appointed by it) or to the other party or its expert any property in its control for inspection or testing.

17.5 Any party which expresses a desire to that effect in reasonable time shall be heard orally before the tribunal unless the parties have agreed in writing on a documents only arbitration.

17.6 The tribunal shall fix the date, times and place of any meetings and hearings in the arbitration and shall give the parties reasonable notice thereof.

17.7 The tribunal may in advance of any hearing submit to the parties a list of questions which it wishes them to answer with special attention.

17.8 If any of the parties although duly notified in accordance with Article 16.6 fails to appear at a meeting or hearing without valid excuse the tribunal shall have the power to proceed with the hearing in its absence.

17.9 At any hearing each party shall be entitled to be present. All meetings and hearings shall be in private unless the tribunal decides otherwise. Except with the approval of the tribunal and the parties, persons not involved in the proceedings shall not be admitted. The tribunal may require the retirement of any witness during the testimony of other witnesses.

17.10 The parties may appear in person or through duly authorized representatives. In addition they may be assisted by advisers.

Evidence of Witnesses article 18

18.1 The tribunal is not required to apply rules of evidence used in judicial proceedings. It shall determine the applicability of any privilege or immunity, and the admissibility, relevance, materiality and weight of the evidence offered.

18.2 Before any hearing the tribunal may require any party to give notice of the identity of each witness that party wishes to call as well as the subject matter of that witness� testimony, its contents and relevance to the issues in the arbitration.

18.3 The tribunal may also determine the times, manner and form in which such material should be exchanged between parties and presented to the tribunal. It has discretion to allow refuse or limit the appearances of witnesses.

18.4 If the tribunal so determines, the evidence of witnesses may be presented in the form of witness statements signed by them.

18.5 Any party may request that a witness on whose witness testimony another party seeks to rely should attend for oral questioning at a hearing before the tribunal. If the tribunal orders this other party to produce the witness, and the witness fails to attend the hearing without good cause, the tribunal may place such weight on the witness testimony (or exclude it altogether) as it considers appropriate in the circumstances of the case.

Experts article 19

19.1 The tribunal may appoint one or more experts to report to it in writing on specific issues to be determined by the tribunal. A copy of the expert�s draft terms of reference shall be communicated to the parties and they be given a period of time to comment thereon before the terms of the reference are finally established by the tribunal, and copied to the parties.

19.2 The parties shall give the expert any relevant information or produce for inspection any property that the expert may require. In the event of disputes between the expert and a party as to the material to be produced or inspected the tribunal shall determine the issue.

19.3 Upon receipt of the expert�s report the tribunal shall communicate a copy to the parties who shall be entitled to express in writing their opinion on that report. A party shall be entitled to examine any material upon which the expert has relied in the report.

19.4 Upon receipt of the expert�s report a party may request a hearing thereon which the tribunal shall be bound to grant. At such a hearing the expert shall be present and may be questioned on his report on behalf of a party, and expert witnesses may testify on behalf of a party on the points at issue.

19.5 The fees and expenses of such tribunal appointed experts shall be part of the costs and expenses of the arbitration.

Interim Measures article 20

20.1 At the request of a party the tribunal may take such interim measures as it deems necessary:-

(a) To order any respondent party to a claim or counterclaim to provide security for all or part of the amount in dispute in such manner and upon such terms as it considers appropriate. Such terms may include the provision by the party claiming security of a cross indemnity itself secured in whichever manner the tribunal considers appropriate for any expenses or losses incurred by the party ordered to provide security in doing so. The amount of such expenses or losses may be determined by the tribunal in one or more awards.

(b) To order the preservation, storage, sale or other disposal of any property or thing under the control of a party and relating to the subject matter of the arbitration.

(c) To order, on a provisional basis, subject to final determination in an award any relief which the tribunal would have power to grant in an award including interdicts and provisional orders for the payment of money or the disposition of property as between any parties.

20.2 The tribunal shall have power at the request of a party to order any other party to provide security for the expenses of that party in such manner and on such terms and for such amount as the tribunal considers appropriate.

20.3 In the event that a party does not comply with an interim measure ordered by the tribunal under Article 20.1 or 20.2 within a time limit fixed by the tribunal, the tribunal may sist or dismiss any claim or counterclaim made by that party, or refuse to allow it to present a defense as may seem appropriate.

20.4 The power of the tribunal under Article 20.1 shall not prejudice any party�s right to apply to any state court for interim or conservatory measures either before or after the tribunal has been constituted.

Closure of Proceedings article 21

21.1 The tribunal shall declare the proceedings closed when it is satisfied that the parties have had adequate opportunity to present their cases. Once it has done so the parties may not present any further material to the tribunal.

21.2 The tribunal may in its discretion on its own motion or on the application of a party re-open the hearing at any time before the award is made.

21.3 The arbitral tribunal shall use its best endeavours to make its award within forty-five days of the closure of the proceedings or such other period as the parties and the arbitral tribunal shall agree.

The Award article 22

22.1 The tribunal may make separate awards on different issues at different times. Such awards shall have the same status and effect as any other award made by the tribunal.

22.2 Where there are three Arbitrators and the tribunal fails to agree on any issue, the Arbitrators shall decide that issue by a majority. Failing a majority decision on any issue, the chairman of the tribunal shall decide that issue.

22.3 If any Arbitrator refuses or fails to sign the award, the signatures of the majority shall be sufficient provided that the reason for the omitted signature is stated in the award. In a case falling under Article 7.1, the signature of the chairman alone shall suffice.

22.4 The tribunal shall make its award in writing and unless the parties agree otherwise shall state the reasons upon which its award is based. The award shall also state the date when the award was made and the seat of the arbitration and shall be signed by the Arbitrators (or the majority of them assenting to it).

22.5 The sole Arbitrator or the Chairman shall be responsible for delivering copies of the award to the parties. The tribunal shall be entitled to withhold the delivering of the award until the fees and expenses due to the tribunal have been met in full.

22.6 An award may be expressed in any currency.

22.7 Any award interim or final shall be binding on the parties from the date on which it is made, subject to Article 2.3. By agreeing to arbitration under the Code, the parties undertake to carry out any award immediately and without delay subject to Article 23 and the parties irrevocably waive their right to any form of appeal review or recourse to any state court or other judicial authority.

22.8 Without prejudice to the foregoing generality all recourse to the Court of Session under Section 3 of the Administration of Justice (Scotland) Act 1972 is expressly excluded.

Correction of Awards and Additional Awards article 23

23.1 Within 30 days of receipt of any award a party may, with notice to the other party, request the tribunal in writing to correct in an award any errors in computation, clerical or typographical errors or any errors of a similar nature or make an additional award as to claims presented but omitted from the award. If the tribunal considers the request justified it shall make the corrections or addition within 30 days of receipt of the request. Any addition or correction shall take the form of a separate memorandum dated and signed by the tribunal (or by the majority assenting to it) and shall become part of the award for all purposes.

23.2 The tribunal may likewise on its own initiative within 30 days of the date of the award correct any error of the nature described in Article 23.1 in the same manner and to the same effect.

Expenses article 24

24.1 The tribunal shall in its award and subject to any agreement between the parties, fix the costs of the arbitration and apportion them between the parties as it considers reasonable in the whole circumstances.

24.2 For the purposes of Article 24.1 costs include:-

(a) The fees and expenses of the arbitral tribunal.

(b) The costs of any assistance required by the tribunal in the course of the arbitration process including the fees and expenses of its experts.

(c) The costs of meeting and hearing facilities.

(d) Any other costs incurred by the arbitral tribunal in the conduct of the arbitration.

24.3 The tribunal shall also have power, unless the parties otherwise agree, to order in its award that all or part of the legal or other expenses incurred by a party in the course of the proceedings shall be paid by another party. The tribunal shall have power to determine and fix the amount of such expenses on such reasonable basis it thinks fit or to order taxation by the Auditor of the Court of Session. It may also make an award of expenses from time to time in the course of the proceedings.

24.4 If the arbitration is abandoned, suspended or concluded by agreement or otherwise before the final award is made, the parties shall remain jointly and severally liable to pay to the tribunal the costs of the arbitration as fixed by the tribunal under Article 24.1.

24.5 The Tribunal shall have power in the course of the proceedings and from time to time to order the parties to make payments in advance in respect of the costs mentioned in Article 24.1 in such sums as to the tribunal appears reasonable.

Settlement article 25

25.1 In the event of a settlement of the parties� dispute the tribunal may render an award recording the settlement if the parties so request in writing, provided that such an award (which need not contain reasons) expressly states that it is an award made by the parties� consent.

25.2 If a settlement is reached and the parties do not require an award, then on written confirmation to the tribunal that a settlement has been reached, the tribunal shall be discharged and the arbitration proceedings concluded subject to payment by the parties of any outstanding costs of the arbitration under Article 24.


 




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