The domain name dispute resolution program was intended to be user-welcoming, but this purpose has not always been reached. A person of the key barriers to powerful entry has been the jargon that has developed up close to the program. To correctly negotiate the method you ought to want to know the differences amongst registrants, registrars and registries you ought to not confuse your UDRP with your ACPA and you can expect to need to be in a position to choose among NAF and WIPO ought to it come to be necessary.

Abusive registration:

This is a vital principle beneath the Nominet Dispute Resolution Plan there is no concept of an abusive registration below the UDRP (while see the entry on undesirable faith). An abusive registration is 1 which was registered or obtained or has subsequently been utilised “in a method which took unfair benefit of or was unfairly harmful to the Complainant’s Rights”.


See the entry on the Anti-Cybersquatting Safety Act.


ADR stands for alternative dispute resolution. In the domain identify dispute context, arbitration proceedings are occasionally referred to as ADR proceedings, specially in EURid documentation.

Alternate dispute resolution:

See the entry on ADR.

Anti-Cybersquatting Safety Act:

A US law enacted on 29 November 1999. It amended the Lanham Act – the centrepiece of US trade mark laws – and sorts segment 43d. The ACPA may – in certain situation – be applied to your case by the US courts, even if you are not a citizen of or based in the US.


Area identify arbitration is the contractually-based mostly program of dispute resolution applied to establish disputes about the right possession of domain names. It is distinctive from classic arbitration: a subtle process of non-public dispute resolution proceedings frequently utilised to figure out international contractual disputes.

Lousy religion:

Under the UDRP a thriving complainant will have to verify that the area title was registered or is becoming applied in negative faith. The notion of poor faith is not defined in the UDRP nonetheless 4 examples of instances which are proof of undesirable religion are given, and I have (crudely) summarised these underneath. Very first, circumstances indicating that the respondent intended to provide the domain name to the complainant are proof of poor faith. Second, so-identified as “blocking” registrations are apparent of undesirable faith, providing they are portion of a sample of such registrations. Third, proof of undesirable faith may possibly be identified in registrations supposed to disrupt a competitor’s business enterprise. Finally, conditions indicating the commercial use of a domain identify which results in a chance of confusion involving the domain title and the complainant’s mark are proof of bad faith. The listing is non-exhaustive.


One particular of the treatments permitted under the UDRP, Nominet Policy, and the .eu Regulation, but rarely used. The standard remedy is transfer. Cancellation is also recognised as revocation.


This stands for region code major amount domain. Examples of ccTLDs consist of .us, .british isles and .de.


The human being making a criticism by way of a domain identify arbitration service about a domain name registration (analogous to a plaintiff or claimant in litigation).


The doc setting out the complainant’s scenario. There are thorough procedures about what ought to go into a grievance, and the duration of grievances is strictly minimal under some regimes. Normally, a criticism would incorporate references to the provisions of the relevant coverage doc, a description of the factual situation of the case, arguments as to why the case need to be found in the complaint’s favour, and references to earlier choices which assistance the arguments.


The apply of improperly registering or attaining area names in which other people have legal rights.


The area name dispute equal of a courtroom judgment. There is no formal technique of precedent in area name arbitration. Even so, the arbitration bodies are loath to let a diversity of interpretations of their policies, and in observe panelists will not usually depart from effectively-reasoned earlier conclusions (or at least that they know about).

Domain name holder:

One more title for a registrant.


The system administering the .eu area name. The EURid dispute resolution provider is supplied by the Prague-primarily based Arbitration Court docket connected to the Economic Chamber of the Czech Republic and Agricultural Chamber of the Czech Republic.


The Nominet phrase for panelists – the “judges” of the domain name dispute resolution program. Most authorities are practising intellectual property lawyers.

Federal Trademark Dilution Act:

US laws furnishing a impressive cure for the owners of renowned trade marks. The FTDA was enacted in 1996. It was the 1st statutory modification of the US Lanham Act to handle the challenges offered by the world-wide-web. Its major result was to broaden the defense available to famed marks by prohibiting dilution.


See the entry on the Federal Trademark Dilution Act.


This stands for generic prime stage domain. Illustrations of gTLDs incorporate .com, .internet and .org. Review ccTLDs.


The Web Company for Assigned Names and Quantities (ICANN) administers the domain title program. It has promulgated no a lot less than 10 unique procedures relating to dispute resolution. The most crucial coverage is the Uniform Area Identify Dispute Resolution Plan (the UDRP). The UDRP ought to be read through in conjunction with the Principles for Uniform Domain Title Dispute Resolution Policy (the Principles). ICANN’s other dispute resolution insurance policies relate, for instance, to distinct kinds of domain identify with certain registration specifications (e.g. .professional or .biz), the .facts dawn period of time, and disputes with registrars about domain title transfers.


See the entry on Internationalised Area Names.

Internationalised Area Names:

A domain identify probably made up of non-ASCII figures, for case in point a domain title consisting of Arabic or Hebrew figures.

Genuine Passions:

To assistance defeat a grievance produced below the URDP, a Respondent should argue that he or she has respectable pursuits in the domain name in dispute. A non-exhaustive listing of approaches of demonstrating a legit desire is established out in the UDRP. Initial, pre-dispute use of (or preparations for the use of) the area name or a title corresponding to the domain title “in link with a bona fide providing of goods or companies” may represent a reputable desire. Next, you or your enterprise becoming normally regarded by the domain title may represent a reputable desire. Third, a respectable non-industrial or good use of the area identify might constitute a reputable fascination, offering that use does not misleadingly divert shoppers of the complainant or tarnish the trade mark at problem.


The National Arbitration Discussion board is a main discussion board for the resolution of area name disputes. NAF focuses on North American domain name disputes. Arbitration proceedings applying NAF are ruled by the UDRP, the Regulations and NAF’s Supplemental Procedures. NAF also supplies non-UDRP dispute resolution companies, for illustration for disputes about .us and .young area names.


Mediation is a sort of alternate dispute resolution in which the parties to a dispute test to concur a settlement to the dispute with the assistance of a expert facilitator. The Nominet Dispute Resolutions Assistance presents a cost-free mediation company.

Mutual jurisdiction:

This notion is utilised in the UDRP and other guidelines to refer to the jurisdictions in which official court docket proceedings should be conducted in the party that domain name arbitration proceedings do not make a satisfactory end result. Less than the UDRP it usually means either the courts of the place in which the suitable registrar is primarily based or the courts in the state which the registrant promises to be based mostly in its WHOIS entry.


The Nominet dispute resolution services discounts with disputes involving .british isles area names (such as .internet.british isles, .ltd.british isles,,, .org.british isles and .me.united kingdom). Nominet does not use the UDRP in its place, disputes are decided under Nominet’s individual Coverage and Method.


A single or a few panelists normally represent the panel.


The judges of the domain identify dispute resolution program. A lot of are practising mental residence lawyers quite a few NAF panelists are retired US judges.


Legalese which means a particular person who is concerned in authorized proceedings as a litigant. In the context of domain title arbitration proceedings, that suggests involvement as both a complainant or a respondent.

Passing off:

The English-legislation tort of passing off has been inherited several other popular law jurisdictions. It is often referred to (with some carelessness) as “unregistered trade mark infringement”. The registration and use of a domain title can represent passing off.


The UDRP and the Nominet Policy are the most essential paperwork in UDRP and Nominet arbitrations respectively. The equal regulations in .eu arbitrations are contained in the Regulation.


The Nominet Treatment is made up of the thorough rules governing the perform of Nominet domain identify arbitrations – for case in point, time boundaries for action.


The company or organisation that administers a area title dispute resolution company. Some devices of area name dispute resolution, these types of as the UDRP procedure, have much more than 1 service provider some others, this sort of as the .eu process, have only a person service provider.


A business or organisation that is accredited by a registry to register area names.


The human being that “owns” (i.e. has the contractual right to use) the domain name. The registrant of a domain name can be located applying a WHOIS support.

Registration agreement:

The settlement entered into between a registrar and a registrant upon the registration or acquisition of a domain title. The registration arrangement stipulates the method of dispute resolution, and hence underpins the entire domain identify dispute resolution program.

Registration authority:

See Registry.


The organisation administering the domain name extension in problem. For case in point, Nominet it the .united kingdom registry and EURid is the .eu registry. Occasionally identified as the registration authority.


In the context of .eu domains, this means Fee Regulation (EC) No 874/2004 of 28 April 2004 laying down community policy procedures regarding the implementation and features of the .eu best degree area and the ideas governing registration.


The document in Nominet proceedings containing the complainant’s arguments in reaction to the respondent’s arguments in the response. It ought to not in general incorporate new arguments unrelated to points elevated in the response. There is no equal in the UDRP or .eu procedures.


The doc that contains the respondent’s arguments in response to the grievance.


A human being responding to a official grievance about his or her area name registration (analogous to a defendant in authorized proceedings).

Reverse area identify hijacking:

The poor use of area identify arbitration proceedings to dispossess a registrant of his or her area name.


See cancellation.

Legal rights:

In Nominet proceedings, a complainant ought to present that he or she has rights in respect of a title or mark which is similar or equivalent to the domain identify at situation. The Nominet Coverage gives that rights “features, but is not limited to, rights enforceable beneath English law. Having said that, a complainant will be unable to depend on rights in a name or phrase which is wholly descriptive of the complainant’s business”. The most important legal rights are registered trade marks and, in English legislation, the right to carry proceedings for the tort of passing off.


The Policies for UDRP nutritional supplement the UDRP by itself. The Czech Arbitration Court docket also has a established of procedures for .eu disputes.

Supplemental Rules:

Under the UDRP, the two NAF and the WIPO Mediation and Arbitration Center concern their very own supplemental policies, which health supplement the UDRP and the Policies for UDRP, and incorporate for example provisions about the prices of arbitration. The Czech Arbitration Court also has a established of supplemental rules for .eu disputes.

Trade Marks Act 1994:

The centrepiece of the United kingdom trade mark regulation regime, the 1994 Act has been routinely amended, commonly to mirror developments in European law.


The most significant treatment in domain title arbitration proceedings. If the panel determines that a criticism has been created out, the domain title will generally be transferred from the respondent to the complainant.


The exercise of improperly registering area names which are incredibly very similar to names in which others have legal rights. A kind of cybersquatting.


The Uniform Area Name Dispute Resolution Coverage promulgated by ICANN governing most disputes about generic major level domains, and quite a few disputes about place code major degree domains. The UDRP will have to be read in conjunction with the Principles for Uniform Area Name Dispute Resolution Coverage.


Directory support for searching up names and other information of area title registrants.


The Environment Intellectual Property Firm (WIPO) is an agency of the United Nations. WIPO’s Arbitration and Mediation Center was the to start with dispute resolution support accredited by ICANN. Arbitration proceedings employing WIPO are ruled by the UDRP, the Rules and WIPO’s Supplemental Policies. It is – alongside with NAF – a person of the “major two” suppliers of dispute resolution products and services beneath the UDRP.

This glossary is supposed to enable you get to grips with the jargon if you need to have additional information and facts, you should visit the Web Library of Cybersquatting and Domain Identify Disputes at [